Candide
1974 Broadway Revival
also known as The Chelsea Version

Based upon the 1973 Chelsea Theater Production
Opened December 11, 1973 at the Brooklyn Academy of Music
Closed January 20, 1974; Ran for 48 performances

Opened March 10, 1974 at the Broadway Theatre
Closed January 4, 1976; Ran for 740 performances

Production Credits | Cast | Musical Numbers | Recording | Synopsis

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Music Composed by Leonard Bernstein
Book adapted from Voltaire by Hugh Wheeler
Lyrics by Richard Wilbur
With Additional Lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and John Latouche

Production Credits

Presented by The Chelsea Theatre Center of Brooklyn
[Robert Kalfin, artistic director; Michael David, executive director; Burl Hash, production director]
Produced in conjunction with Harold Prince and Ruth Mitchell
Directed by Harold Prince
Choreographed by Patricia Birch
Assistant Director: Ruth Mitchell
Production Designed by Eugene and Franne Lee
Lighting Designed by Tharon Musser
Musical Direction by John Mauceri [replaced by Paul Gemignani during the show's run]
Orchestrations by Hershy Kay

Cast

Lewis J. Stadlen - Dr. Voltaire / Dr. Pangloss / Governor / Host / Sage [replaced by Charles Kimbrough during the show's run]
Mark Baker - Candide
Maureen Brennan - Cunegonde
Sam Freed - Maximillian
June Gable - Old Lady [replaced by Joanne Jonas and then by Niki Flacks during the show's run]
Deborah St. Darr - Paquette
Jim Corti - Chinese Coolie / Westphalian Soldier / Priest / Spanish Don / Rosary Vendor / Sailor / Lion / Guest
David Horwitz - Huntsman / 1st Recruiting Officer / Agent / Spanish Don / Cartagenian / Priest / Sailor / Eunuch
Mary-Pat Green - Baroness / Harpsichordist / Penitente / Steel Drummer / Houri
Joe Palmieri - Baron / Grand Inquisitor / Slave Driver / Captain / Guest
Robert Hendersen - Servant / Bulgarian Soldier / Agent of the Inquisition / Spanish Don
Peter Vogt - 2nd Recruiting Officer / Aristocrat / Cartagenian
Gail Boggs - Penitente / Whore / Houri [replaced by Lisa Wilkinson during the show's run]
Lynne Gannaway - Penitente / Cartagenian / Houri
Carolann Page - Aristocrat / Cartagenian / 2nd Sheep
Carlos Gorbea - Pygmy / Cow
Kelly Walters - Bulgarian Soldier / Penitente / Cartagenian / Sailor / Cow
Chip Garnett - Westphalian Soldier / Agent / Governor's Aide / Pirate / Guest
Jeff Keller - Rich Jew / Judge / Man in Black / Cartagenian / Pirate / German / Botanist / Guest
Becky McSpadden - Aristocrat / Cartagenian / Houri
Kathryn Ritter - Aristocrat / Whore / Houri / (Cunegonde Alternate)
Renee Semes - Lady with Knitting / Cartagenian / 1st Sheep
Rhoda Butler - Swing Girl

Musical Numbers

    * These numbers were not listed in the program, but were identified as such on the cast recording.

Recording

Candide - Original Cast Recording of the Complete Production

Recording produced by Thomas Z. Shepard
Associate Producer: Jay David Saks
Engineering Control: Bud Graham
Editing and Mixing: Ray Moore
Orchestra conducted by John Mauceri

Liner notes by William.H. Evans
Includes pictorial synopsis

  • Double LP (stereo), 1974 [Columbia S2X 32923]
  • Double LP (quadraphonic), 1974 [Columbia Q2S 32923]

Further recording information

Synopsis

At the close of the Overture, the aging Dr. Voltaire is roused from sleep in his four-poster to begin his story and to introduce the four young people who happily live in the castle of the Baron Thunder-Ten-Tronck in Westphalia: the bastard cousin Candide, the beautiful daughter Cunegonde, her handsome brother Maximillian, and the luscious serving maid Paquette. [Life is Happiness Indeed]

Through a quick change of wig and coat [Parade], Dr. Voltaire transform himself into Dr. Pangloss, the wise instructor of philosophy, who prances off with Candide, Paquette, Cunegonde and Maximillian to conduct his invaluable lessons in the classroom. [The Best of All Posible Worlds]

Paquette stays after class for her private session in advanced physics with Dr. Pangloss.  Overcome by curiosity, Cunegonde returns to observe Paquette's lesson in the relative specific gravity of two bodies, male and female.  After Dr. Pangloss graphically demonstrates the experiment, Cunegonde runs off happily to share her discovery with Candide. [Oh, Happy We]

Caught in the middle of their experiment by Maximillian and Cunegonde's furious father, the Baron, the two are yanked apart and Candide is forever banished from Westphalia.  A lonely wanderer, Candide sadly contemplates his fate. [It Must Be So]

On the road, Candide is abducted by two men who take him away to join the Bulgarian Army, which is about to invade Westphalia. Cunegonde, Maximillian, the Baron and Baroness pray for safety. [O Miserere]  The Bulgarians attack and kill all but Cunegonde, who is spared for the benefit of the Bulgarian regiment.  After Cunegonde has fulfilled her function, she is tossed onto a pile of Westphalian corpses and left for dead.  She sits and ponders her situation. [Oh, Happy We (reprise)]

All alone in the world Cunegonde survives by moving from brothel to brothel, until one day she ends up in Lisbon, enjoying the amorous attentions of a tremendously rich Jew, and an equally rich Grand Inquisitor, both of whom shower her with expensive jewels. [Glitter and Be Gay]

At the same time, Candide turns up in Lisbon, just after an enormous earthquake, only to find himself reunited with his beloved master Dr. Pangloss.  Just as Candide learns of Cunegonde's apparent death, he and Pangloss are arrested as heretics and dragged off to be punished at the Auto-da-fé.  Pangloss is hanged and Candide is flogged unconscious, and left to die. An Old Lady appears who comforts the battered Candide. [This World]

The Old Lady nurses Candide and then leads him to none other than Cunegonde, still alive and yearning. [You Were Dead, You Know]  The two immediately face a new crisis as the Grand Inquisitor and the tremendously rich Jew angrily confront the two lovers.  Seeing no other alternative, Candide kills them both.

With the Old Lady, they quickly take flight and head for Cadiz.  As the penniless trio wanders on, the Old Lady decides to repair their fortunes by seducing three Spaniards. [I Am Easily Assimilated]

In the New World--Cartagena, Columbia, to be exact--the hot-blooded Spanish Governor surveys the new prospects at the local slave market, two of whom happen to be Paquette and Maximillian, disguised as a senorita.  It is the winsome Maximillian who attracts the Governor's lecherous eye. [My Love]  Though Maximillian is exposed before marrying the Governor, he escapes death by joining a brotherhood of Jesuits.

Meanwhile, on a ship at sea [Barcarolle], Candide, Cunegonde, and the Old Lady are attacked by Barbary pirates who kidnap the two women and leave Candide lying on the deck.  Heartbroken, he finally arrives alone at the Jesuits' stronghold in Montevideo. [Alleluia]  Who should Candide meet there but first, Paquette, and then the long-lost Maximillian. Candide informs them that Cunegonde lives, which unfortunately rekindles his feud with Maximillian over Cunegonde's love life.  A wild chase ensues, and Maximillian is crushed by a falling statue of St. Francis.  Once again, Candide becomes a fugitive, this time with Paquette as companion.

After many weeks of treacherous journeying, Paquette and Candide stumble into the country of Eldorado, where everything does happen for the best, where the mud is gold and the streets are paved with diamonds.  Even the animals are articulate, wise and gentle, including two friendly sheep and a lion. [Sheep's Song]  Even in Paradise, though, Candide is not happy and longs to find his Cunegonde once again.  He and Paquette decide to load their two friendly sheep with gold and escape from Eldorado.

After much more wandering, they end up back in Cartagena, Columbia, where they miraculously discover the Old Lady, long since abandoned by the Barbary pirates.  She informs Candide that the pirates were headed for Constantinople to sell Cunegonde for the highest price.  As it happens, the Governor overhears them and offers them passage on his frigate, the Santa Rosalia, which is leaving for Constantinople that very day.  Marveling at their good fortune, Candide, Paquette, and the Old Lady board a skiff, as the Governor and the populace see them off. [Bon Voyage]

Unfortunately, the Governor not only swindled them out of their sheep, but also put them in a leaky skiff that sinks before reaching the frigate.  Sometime later, the three weather-beaten travellers are washed up on a tiny desert island.  But once again, fortune smiles upon them, as their two faithful sheep swim up to the desert island, still bearing the gold. [The Best of All Possible Worlds (reprise)]

They are soon rescued and immediately continue their trek to Constantinople to find Cunegonde.  Safely arrived in Constantinople, they enter a Turkish palace where a lavish feast is in progress.  A veiled dancing girl is entertaining at the banquet, and who should this girl be but Cunegonde.  The lovers are reunited once more. [You Were Dead, You Know (reprise)]

Candide buys Cunegonde's freedom, only to discover that Maximillian is not dead but is a slave at the very same palace.  Candide spends the remainder of the fortune to buy Maximillian who joins Candide, Cunegonde, Paquette, and the Old Lady.  The destitute group departs.  The Old Lady recalls that she knows of a local sage who will doubtless be able to solve their problems.  The sage turns out to be ancient Dr. Pangloss, who can't seem to remember his former Westphalian pupils.  Nevertheless, Candide begs Pangloss to tell them what the natural function of man is.  Pangloss can't find the piece of paper on which the answer is written, but Candide spots it and picks it up himself, as Pangloss rattles on.

The paper reads: "What is the natural function of man?  What was it in the Garden of Eden?  Dig, spin, work without regret for yesterday or hope for tomorrow.  For man, it is only work that makes life endurable."

Candide and Cunegonde resolve to adopt this new philosophy, return to Westphalia, and create their own Garden of Eden. [Make Our Garden Grow]

Compiled by Michael H. Hutchins