The Songs

Introduction | Song List | Song Notes | Miscellanea



This is a personal, thus somewhat eccentric, guide to the songs from Candide.  Each piece has been assigned a number, which is quite cleverly called the Bernstein Number.  This is based on the sequence used by Bernstein in his "final revised version" of 1989.  Each variation of a song is given a sub-number.  This system was devised before my acquisition of the conductor's score of the Scottish Opera version which also designates each selection.  I have chosen to keep my system because it takes into account the variations.  The credited lyricist for each piece is given below the title. 

It should be noted that most of this information is based on recordings, playbills, published scores (both the Broadway version and the Scottish version), as well as the Bernstein Collection at the Library of Congress in Washington DC.  As so often happens, it is quite possible that musical numbers that were performed in the production might not have been included in the released recording, or may have been included in an abridged version.  In other words, these comments are far from definitive.  Nevertheless, they can form a basis for your own investigation into the intricacies of Candide and all its permutations.

Where noted, John Baxindine kindly supplied information that was gathered during research for his thesis on the creation of the original production.

Lyricists' full names:

Bernstein - Leonard Bernstein
Hellman - Lillian Hellman
Latouche - John Latouche
Parker - Dorothy Parker
Sondheim - Stephen Sondheim
Wells - John Wells
Wilbur - Richard Wilbur

These abbreviations are used:
[with links to the page for that production]

56BP - 1956 Broadway Production
58CT - 1958 Concert Tour
59LP - 1959 London Production
66UC - 1966 UCLA Production
68NY - 1968 New York City Concert
71TP - 1971 SF/LA/DC Tour
74BR - 1974 Broadway Revival
82NY - 1982 NYC Opera Production
88SO - 1988 Scottish Opera Production
89BV - 1989 Bernstein Version
97BR - 1997 Broadway Revival
99NT - 1999 National Theatre Production

Song List

All at Sea
The Ballad of Eldorado
The Ballad of the New World
Battle Music
The Best of All Possible Worlds
Bon Voyage
Candide Agonistes
Candide Begins His Travels
Candide's Lament
Candide's Meditation
Candide's Return from Eldorado
Candide's Second Meditation
Dear Boy
Earthquake Music
Entrance of the Jew
Fernando's Lullaby
Get You Up
Glitter and Be Gay
The Governor's Serenade
The Governor's Waltz
Happy Instrumental
I Am Easily Assimilated
I've Got Troubles

The Inquisition
Introduction to Eldorado
It Must Be Me
It Must Be So
The Kings' Barcarolle
Lady Frilly
Laughing Song
The Lesson Song
Life is Absolute Perfection
Life is Happiness Indeed
Life is Happiness Unending
Life is Neither
Lisbon Sequence
Love Duet
Make Our Garden Grow
The Marquise's Gavotte
Martin's Laughing Song
Maximilian's Reprise
Money, Money, Money
My Love
No More Than This
Nothing More Than This
O Miserere
Oh, Happy We
Oh What a Day for a Holiday
Old Lady's False Entrance
Old Lady's Second False Entrance
The Old Lady's Tango
Packing to Descent

The Paris Waltz
Pass It Along
The Pickpocket Ballet
Pilgrims' Procession
Proposal Duet
Pure Child
Quartet Finale
Return to Westphalia
Reunion Waltz
Ring Around a Rosy
Sheep Song
The Simple Life
This World
To the New World [1]
To the New World [2]
Travel (to the Stables)
Universal Good
The Venice Gavotte
Venice Gambling Scene
Voltaire Chorale
Voyage to Venice
We Are Women
Wedding Chorale
Wedding Procession
Westphalia Chorale
What a Day
What's the Use?
Words, Words, Words
The Worst of All Possible Worlds
You Were Dead, You Know

Song Notes

0 Overture

A glorious opening to one of the best of all possible musical scores.  It begins with a Fanfare which is repeated three more times in the piece (and recurs several times in the score.)  Each occurrence of the Fanfare is followed by the triplets from The Best of All Possible Worlds. The Battle Music and music from Oh, Happy We are alternately heard twice, followed by music from Glitter and Be Gay.  The last half-minute of the piece brings back all four major themes.  What makes Bernstein's different from most musical theatre overtures is the inclusion of a theme that is never heard again in the remainder of the score.  I have created a graph showing the pattern used by Bernstein in assembling the Overture.

The version recorded for the 74BR is a travesty.  And even though the new orchestrations by Bruce Coughlin used in the 99NT sound closer to musical theatre than Bernstein and Kay's original, it is nevertheless quite enjoyable.  In addition to the seven cast recordings, I have been able to find more than forty other recordings of the Overture.  Here is a complete listing

0.9 Wedding Chorale
1.0 Westphalia Chorale
[Bernstein / Wells]
1.5 Westphalia
[Bernstein / Wells]
1.7 Chorale
1.9 Voltaire Chorale

The music for this short piece was originally used in the first scene of the 56BP, for the five-line "wedding chorale" (untitled and uncredited) [0.9] sung by the chorus shortly after Candide and Cunegonde's duet Oh, Happy We and just before the attack of the Hessian Army.  The lyrics are:

We subjects of this Barony
Are gathered here in pride and glee
To hail the lovely bride-to-be
And graft upon her noble tree
The flower of chivalry.

Actually, if you listen very closely, you can here this same music (sped up considerably) used in the question verses of The Best of All Possible Worlds.

With new lyrics written with John Wells (though he is not credited in the published score) for the 88SO, it is sung twice in that production as well as in the 89BV.  It is reprised just before the Bulgarian Attack with different lyrics [1.5].

In the 82NY, the lyrics (translation uncredited) are in German [1.7].  There was a completely new set of lyrics [1.9] used in the 99NT

2.0 Life is Happiness Indeed
2.1 Life is Absolute Perfection
2.5 Life is Happiness Unending
[Sondheim / ?]
2.7 The Old Lady's False Entrance
2.8 The Old Lady's Second False Entrance
2.9 Parade
[no lyrics]

This song uses music from the Venice Gavotte, and was first performed in Harold Prince's 74BR.  He chose not to use the original song in its original place in the show, but must have liked the music well enough to have Sondheim write a new set of lyrics.  Just like its source song, this piece consists of two major melodies.  Candide and Cunegonde's verses come from the "I've Got Troubles" section and Maximilian's verse comes from the "Lady Frilly" section.  And just like the Venice Gavotte, the two parts are then sung in counterpoint.  Pangloss's spoken introductions to each character's verses is underscored with a theme from Dear Boy

For the version used in the 82NY, another set of themes from the score were used as underscore during the introductions.  Pilgrims Procession was used for Candide and Paquette, while the chorus from Dear Boy introduced Cunegonde, and Maximilian was introduced with a theme from the "Lady Frilly" section of the Venice Gavotte.  This same version is used in the 97BR.  The order of the character introductions varies by production. 

The published score for the 88SO includes the main title and a selection entitled Life is Absolute Perfection [2.1].  This is just a separate listing for Maximilian's verse and the subsequent quartet.  Neither this song nor any other Sondheim contribution to the 88SO were included on the cast recording.

In his 97BR, Prince wanted to introduce the Old Lady earlier in the work (or give Andrea Martin a larger part) which led to Sondheim writing new lyrics to the same music for two short pieces [2.7 and 2.8].  The chorus from [2.0] is reprised in [2.7]. 

The song was split into two parts for the 99NT.  After Candide's introductory verse (called simply Life is Happiness Indeed on the recording), the remainder of the song is titled Life is Happiness Unending [2.5].  It does not include the interludes and Maximilian's verses have new lyrics by an uncredited author (probably Sondheim as well, who had purportedly revised some of his lyrics for this production). 

A short reprise [2.9] without lyrics is also used in the 74BR

3.0 The Best of All Possible Worlds [Marriage]
3.2 The Best of All Possible Worlds [War and Peace]
3.5 The Best of All Possible Worlds [The Lesson Song]
3.7 The Best of All Possible Worlds

The first Wilbur version [3.0] was used in the 56BP to announce the marriage of Candide and Cunegonde.  All productions using Hellman's book would probably have used this version.  For the 68NY and the 71TP (using Hellman's book as revised by Sheldon Patinkin), the song appears twice at the beginning of Act One (with the subtitles Marriage and War and Peace in the program of the 71TP.)  The first version is sung by the usual characters and the second by Pangloss, the Baron and the King of Hesse.  Wilbur's lyrics were probably written in the fifties, because the War and Peace version [3.2] was originally intended to be the opening number.  As this version has never been commerically recorded, the lyrics are provided here:

Isn't it grand?  Isn't it splendid?
Peace is at hand.  Warfare is ended.
Are we not blest in this best of all possible worlds?
All's for the best in this best of all possible worlds.

Are we not blest in this best of all possible worlds?
All's for the best in this best of all possible worlds.

You may be glad, but I for one am sad.
I like to win, but when I've won
There's always peace to spoil my fun.
Without big bangs and saber clangs
And rape and rage and roaring
Existence is too boring.

Quite right, dear sir, a massacre's
The best of recreations.
It's healthy exercise for kings
And when it ends it always brings
Polite negotiations,
And peace between the nations.
War is delight, war is amusing,
What fun to fight, winning or losing.
Either is sweet in this best of all possible worlds.
War is a treat in this best of all possible worlds.

Either is sweet in this best of all possible worlds.
War is a treat in this best of all possible worlds.

"A treat", sir?  What do you mean?
I say that war's insane.
I'm sick of making plucky stands
And barking out absurd commands.
I'm sick of blood and rain and mud
And getting over heated.
I'm glad that I'm defeated.

Quite right, sir.  I quite concur.
I think this peace is charming.
It gives the scholar leisure for
His hist'ry of the latest war.
It gives us time for farming
And gradual rearming.

Peace is a bore.

Peace is a blessing.

I'm all for war.

War is depressing.

Peace is a curse in —

This best of all possible worlds.

Quite the reverse in —

This best of all possible worlds.

Attention!  Don't make a sound.
I'm going to expound.
My friends, both war and peace are sweet.
In sweetness all extremes do meet.
There's black and white and day and night
In happy alteration.
Delights one's contemplation.
This world was meant for our content.
It was not made at random,
And all bad things are truly good
When they are rightly understood
By those who understand 'em.
Quod erat demonstradum.

ALL (in a round)
Quod erat demonstradum.

ALL (together)
In this best of all possible, possible, possible worlds.
Quod erat demonstradum.

Since Hugh Wheeler's book was an attempt to return to Voltaire's novel (Candide and Cunegonde are never engaged to be wed), this song could not be used without a change of lyrics.  Latouche's version [3.5] is a philosophy lesson from Pangloss to his students.  Latouche (or La Touche or LaTouche) wrote these lyrics (as credited on the 89BV) for the 56BP but they were not used until the 74BR and all subsequent productions.  This version was originally titled the Lesson Song.

A short reprise with new lyrics by Sondheim [3.7] was used in the 74BR (recorded) and the 82NY (not recorded) after Candide, Paquette and the Old Lady are washed up on the desert island. 

For yet another set of lyrics by Richard Wilbur see Candide Agonistes.

4.0 Universal Good
[Bernstein / Wells]
4.5 Universal Good [Life is Neither]
[Hellman / Bernstein]

Musically very similar to the Westphalia Chorale, it is reprised once in the 88SO (though neither is on the recording) and twice in the 89BV.  The first reprise on the 89BV opens Act Two with a slight lyrical variation.  The last version [4.5] has two verses and appears just before Make Our Garden Grow in both the 89BV and the 99NT (where the first verse is sung by Candide alone).  See Get You Up for further information on its original placement in the pre-Broadway score. 

Wells is credited as co-lyricist of the first version on the recording of the 89BV, but not in the published score

5.0 Oh, Happy We

The music for this song was originally intended as a duet between West Side Story's Tony and Maria in a tea party scene that was dropped.  The reverse also happened [see below]. 

There are no variations other than a short reprise by Cunegonde and Candide in the 74BR after the attack of the Bulgarian Army [5.1].  One of only a handful of songs that are always sung in the same point in the show by the same character(s) and with no variation in lyrics. It is a perfect example of that sub-genre of duets where neither singer is listening to the other.  The main theme is also used in the Overture

The underscore that precedes this is entitled Happy Instrumental.  It is probably used in most productions (being in the published score), but is only recorded on the 82NY

An early discarded version of this song, the Proposal Duet, had lyrics by John Latouche.

6.0 It Must Be So [Candide's Meditation]
6.1 Candide Begins His Travels [Candide Continues His Travels]
[no lyrics]
6.5 It Must Be Me [Candide's Second Meditation]
6.6 It Must Be Me
6.9 O Miserere

This piece appears in most productions three times (even in the 56BP, yet only the first version was recorded).  After Candide's sung version [6.0], it appears as underscore [6.1].  Later it is sung with different lyrics (also by Wilbur) [6.5].  A condensed version of this reprise [6.6] was used in the 99NT, and sung in Act Two which is much later than in most productions (though it was also in Act Two in the 71TP.) 

In the 74BR (which includes only the first sung version), it is reprised by a chorus (lyrics unintelligible, maybe Latin?) during the attack of the Bulgarian Army [6.9].  In the 82NY, the instrumental version [6.1] is presented before and after the first vocal version with different orchestrations, but the vocal reprise [6.5] is omitted. 

7.0 Battle Music
[no lyrics]

This is most likely in most productions as underscore during the attack on Westphalia.  It has only been recorded twice, first for the 82NY and later for the 89BV.  Near the end, Bernstein ironically has the horn section reprise (and forcefully, at that) the theme from Oh, Happy We.  And, of course, the music is quite prominently used in the Overture as well. 

8.0 Candide's Lament
8.2 Candide's Lament
8.5 This World [Candide's Lament]
8.9 Return to Westphalia
[no lyrics]

Although Bernstein considered this piece the heart of the show, it was dropped during the Boston try-out and not used again until the 66UC.  It is the first major use of the Cunegonde theme, which re-appears several more times throughout the score — depending, of course, on the production.  It becomes a waltz for the first part of The Paris Waltz, is very prominent in the Quartet Finale of the first act, and introduces the finale Make Our Garden Grow

The version used in the 66UC was probably by Latouche [8.2].  John Baxindine states that Latouche's version was used in all of Sheldon Patinkin's productions.  In the 71TP, the program shows the song was sung by Candide and the King of Hesse.  It was more likely similar to the arrangement used in the 68NY concert in which Candide's performance is accompanied by interspersed commentary by the King of Hesse.

In anticipation of a possible Broadway revival, Richard Wilbur wrote a letter to Bernstein and Patinkin (dated "7 June 1969"), in which he included "my revision of the Lament done in 1956 at the suggestion of Lenny and Lillian.  I very much prefer it to the Latouche lyric, and hope there will be no objection to substituting it."  Evenso, there is no evidence that his lyrics were used before the 88SO production — even then slightly revised (see below). 

[8.0] Wilbur's Revised Version:

Cunegonde, is it true?
Is it you so still and cold, love?
Could our young joys, just begun,
Not outlast the dying sun?

When such brightness dies so soon
Can the heart find strength to bear it?
Shall I ever be consoled love?
No, I swear it
By the light of this lovers' moon.
Though I must see tomorrow's dawn.
My heart is gone where you are gone.

Shall I ever be consoled, love?
No, I swear it
By the light of this lovers' moon.
Good-bye, my love, my love, good-bye.
a. [Good-bye, my love, my love, good-bye.]
b. [My heart is gone where you are gone.]
[Note: different productions use a. or b.]

Wilbur's Original 1956 Version:

Is that warm heart grown so cold
When its love was scarcely told, love?
Could our young joys, just begun,
Not outlast the dying sun?

When such brightness dies so soon
Can the heart find strength to bear it?
Shall I ever be consoled love?
No, I swear it
By the light of this bitter moon.
Though I must face tomorrow's dawn.
My heart is gone where you are gone.

The first cast recording of the Wilbur version [8.0] was for the 88SO.  Bernstein went back to this version for his 89BV (even though the recording mistakenly gives credit to Latouche instead of Wilbur), as did Caird for his 99NT, except that the last couplet was omitted. 

This World, Sondheim's version [8.5], has an entirely new set of lyrics and appears in all of the Prince-directed productions — in the 82NY and 97BR as Candide's Lament.

Sondheim Version:

Is this all then, this the world?
Death and envy, greed and blindness?
What is kindness but a lie?
What to live for but to die?

I would never miss the world
Never this one which is hateful.
Let me die then, only grateful
Cunegonde, dying sooner,
Was spared this world.

What is kindness but a lie?
What to live for but to die?

There is also an instrumental reprise of the theme [8.9] in the 88SO, but it is not included on the cast recording.  This reprise is sometimes called Return to Westphalia (as it is in the 1958 published score) because it is used as underscore in most productions during the transition from the Venice scene to the final scene in Westphalia.  The first time it is individually credited with this title is in the program of the 71TP.  In the 1994 published score it immediately precedes the final chorale of Universal Good (Life is Neither).  When assembling his Candide Suite, John Mauceri used this piece as a lead into Make Our Garden Grow, which is quite apropos. 

9.0 Dear Boy

For a long time I assumed that this first appeared in the 82NY.  John Mauceri states in the liner notes of that production's recording that he was given a pile of music that Bernstein had written over a period from the early 1950's through 1971, and that Wilbur agreed to provide new lyrics.  It turns out that Dear Boy was first performed in the 1956 Boston tryout as part of the Lisbon Sequence.  And even though it was dropped before the Broadway opening, it was published in an appendix of the 1958 score.  It was also performed in the 58CT.  Why this marvelous concoction wasn't used for the next 24 years is a mystery, indeed.  The lyrics were first published (as "Pangloss's Song: A Comic-Opera Lyric") in Richard Wilbur's poetry collection Advice to a Prophet and Other Poems (Harcourt, Brace & World, 1961), and were reprinted in the libretto of Candide published in Lillian Hellman's The Collected Plays (Little, Brown, 1971) as part of the (pre-Broadway) Lisbon Sequence.  There is also a recording of Wilbur reading his poem released by Caedmon Records in 1968.  The poem was also reprinted in Modern Poems: An Introduction to Poetry, edited by Richard Ellman and Robert O'Clair (W. W. Norton, 1973).

This is one of two syphilis songs.  (The other, Ring Around A Rosy, had lyrics by Latouche; the music for each is entirely different.)  Despite the subject matter (or probably because of it), the chorus has one of the sweetest melodies of the score.  Obviously, most productions would have to choose either this song or Ring Around A Rosy (which has also been included in one of several versions of the Auto-da-fé.)  Why did Bernstein include both songs in his 89BV?  Perhaps he wanted to include as much of his music as possible even if it interfered with the integrity of the show.  In the Barbican concert of December 1989, Bernstein introduced Act Two by pointing out that Wilbur's song was "equally inspired, if somewhat more literary" than Latouche's take on the subject.

I was also surprised to learn that the 88SO (for which Mauceri was also the music director) included both Ring Around A Rosy and Dear Boy (which is not on the cast recording).  In the liner notes of the 82NY (in which only Dear Boy is performed — the only Prince production that included it, in fact) Mauceri makes a point about not being able to use all of Bernstein's music because of this duplication in material. 

Prince's possible disfavor of this song may have influenced the decision in 1973 not to follow-up on Hugh Wheeler's suggestion that the music form a new song for Paquette and Maximilian.  In an early draft of the libretto for the 74BR, Wheeler had the characters narrate their adventures to Candide during their reunion in South America.  Or was Sondheim unable to supply the additional lyrics that Prince and Wheeler were requesting?

In the 82NY, this song was preceded by a short instrumental piece, the Earthquake Music

10.0 Lisbon Sequence [Lisbon Fair and The Inquisition]
10.1 Oh What a Day for a Holiday
10.2 Ring Around a Rosy [Ringaroundarosy]
10.3 Auto-da-fé [What a Day]
[Latouche / Sondheim / Wilbur / Bernstein (uncredited)]
10.5 Auto-da-fé
[Latouche / Wilbur / Bernstein (uncredited)]
10.7 Auto-da-fé
[Latouche / Bernstein (uncredited)]

Another tangled knot to sort out, but I think I've made a good start. 

Let's begin with Bernstein's Lisbon Sequence [10.0], which was used in the 56BP, 58CT, and the 66UC.  Of course, it's hard to know to what extent any of these productions' versions may have differed.  (Go here for further information on how it may have been used in the 66UC.)  Based on the Hellman's published libretto of the Broadway production, it starts with the familiar "Hurry, Hurry, Hurry" verse.  Instead of "What a day, what a day for an auto-da-fé", it says "What a fair, what a fair, things to buy everywhere."  This is followed by a duet between the Arab Conjuror and the Infant Casmira, who is predicting a dire future for the city.  The music concludes with the Pray For Us section included in most versions of Auto-da-fé (which means Bernstein should be partially credited for lyrics in those versions as well).  This is followed by the Inquisition scene which was not musicalized on Broadway.  But ... it was in the Boston previews (with Wilbur's questions sequence, see below).  Even Latouche's "What a day for an auto-da-fé" was used there.  This sequence, of course, was not on the cast recording.  For a clearer idea of the scene, read each of the following libretto excerpts: Boston: Act I, Scene 2 and Broadway: Act I, Scene 2.

In a letter to Bernstein, Lillian Hellman, who was working at the time on revisions for the 59LP, talks about turning the Lisbon sequence into a ballet and adding "Touche's" lyrics for What a Day (originally written for the 56BP, but not used).  The program for this production calls it Oh What a Day for a Holiday [10.1].  This probably included Bernstein's Pray For Us section as well.  In a letter from Wilbur to Bernstein in September, 1958 he writes "I’ve kept Latouche’s 'What a day / For an auto-da-fe' because I think it the best bit of lyrics ever written for the show; and I think it will bear all the repeating I propose." 

Latouche's Ring Around a Rosy [10.2] (one of two syphilis songs; the other, Dear Boy, has lyrics by Wilbur) was part of the Lisbon Sequence in the score as fair-copied for the Library of Congress in 1955.  It was not performed until the 66UC where it was relocated to Act II.  This position was kept when it was performed in the 68NY concert when Pangloss and Candide are reunited on the raft after Martin's being eaten by a shark.  Its first recording was in 1981 on Ben Bagley's Leonard Bernstein Revisited and later on the 1997 reissue of the cast recording of the 88SO.  What's puzzling about the latter recording is that the number is not listed in the production's program, but Auto-da-fé is!  Perhaps the 88SO recording is an excerpt from the the long version of Auto-da-fé that Bernstein created for his 89BV, which is purportedly 22 bars longer.  Bernstein's version of Auto-da-fé includes only the verses of Ring Around a Rosy and not the title chorus (musically similar to the "hurry, hurry, hurry" chorus). 

For the first version [10.3] of Auto-da-fé, Latouche's lyrical contribution is the chorus from What a Day.  Sondheim's contribution is the verse involving the audience of "What a day, what a treat, did you save me a seat?" through "We can meet down the street and have lunch!"  Wilbur wrote the Inquisitors questions ("Shall we let the sinners go or try them? Fry them!") .  Bernstein's Pray For Us section follows and Latouche's chorus concludes the piece.  This version first appeared in the 74BR and subsequent Harold Prince productions. The additional lyrics in the 82NY (the "frump with one bump upon her rump" lines) were probably written by Sondheim as well.  The 97BR omits all of the first verse of Sondheim lines but (of course) keeps the rump lines.  (As far as Candide is concerned, when did Hal Prince ever err on the side of good taste when a joke was to be had?)

The recording of this version for the 82NY is divided into three parts, which makes it easier to separate the various sections of the song and to assign lyric credit.  Part One includes Latouche's What a Day chorus and Sondheim's verse.  Part Two includes Latouche's chorus and Wilbur's Inquisitors questions.  Part Three is by Bernstein (Pray For Us) and Latouche (his chorus concludes the piece). 

Bernstein created a new version [10.5] of Auto-da-fé for his 89BV.  He starts with Latouche's What a Day chorus, then his own lyrics for the verse about the fair (from the 56BP), then jumps into Latouche's verses from Ring Around a Rosy (but not the title chorus!), returns to Latouche's chorus and Wilbur's Inquisitors questions, followed by his own Pray For Us section and concludes with Latouche's chorus.  All of Sondheim's lines are omitted. 

John Caird's version [10.7] for the 99NT omits Ring Around a Rosy (he uses Dear Boy earlier in the show) and also omits all of Sondheim's contributions, thus making it similar to Parts Two and Three of the 82NY.

For more information go to The Inquisition.

11.0 The Paris Waltz [Mazurka / The Governor's Waltz]
[no lyrics]

Another sticking point among most Candide-ophiles is where this piece should be performed in the show.  It is truncated on the recording of the 56BP (called simply Mazurka in the libretto) and given its first complete recording on the 82NY where it is moved to Act Two and South America as The Governor's Waltz — as it is in all subsequent Harold Prince productions.  It begins with the Cunegonde theme which recurs several times depending on the recording [see Candide's Lament]. 

12.0 Glitter and Be Gay

The "jewel" of the show (it's working title was Cunegonde's Jewel Song) and its most well-known theme, this aria is also prominently featured in the Overture.  It is performed in every production in relatively the same place with almost no variations ever — except in how many high E flats the singer can hit.  In all Harold Prince-directed productions, because Wheeler's book places her in Lisbon, Cunegonde sings "Here I am by sorry chance" instead of the original "Here I am in Paris, France."  What a shame to loose a clever lyric just to be consistent! 

There is a short musical interlude that precedes this song on the 82NY entitled Entrance of the Jew which is very similar to the music for Constantinople

As for the best recording, no one does it better than Barbara Cook on the 56BP.  Despite all the attempts by "legitimate" singers, nobody approaches the sheer joy that Cook brings to the piece.  Our both being from Atlanta did not influence in the least my preference for Cook's version.

13.0 You Were Dead, You Know
[Latouche / Wilbur]

One of my favorite lyrics of the show — simple, yet witty and droll, but we'll go into that another day.  The published libretto of the 56BP gives both Latouche and Wilbur credit as lyricists (as does the 1956 sheet music and the program of the 71TP).  Bernstein gives only Latouche credit on his 89BV even though the versions are identical.  This is one of the songs with lyrics by Latouche (originally known as the Reunion Waltz) that was revised when Wilbur was brought into the project in 1956 (providing the title phrase).  For a comparison of the different versions, go here.

There is a slight lyrical change in the Prince versions: from "Oh, what torture, oh what pain / Holland, Portugal and Spain" to "Oh, what torture, far from home / Hamburg, Amsterdam and Rome".  I personally think the first version is better because the rhyme is continued with "I would do it all again".  The Paris Waltz version of the Cunegonde theme is reprised shortly before the end of the song.

There is a short reprise [13.1] in the 74BR after the lovers are reunited in Constantinople.  This reprise was also done in the 82NY but was not on the cast recording. 

14.0 I Am Easily Assimilated [The Old Lady's Tango]

This song appears in every version, yet Bernstein doesn't always get credit as one of the "Additional Lyrics By".  This is my personal favorite of the four Bernstein worded songs (the others are We Are Women, Words, Words, Words and Nothing More Than This.)  Despite Dorothy Parker's feelings about Bernstein's ability to write lyrics [see this excerpt], his work here is witty with moments of outright hilarity.  Bernstein's wife, Felicia, reportedly had a hand with the lyrics as well. 

There is a slight variation in lyric with either the Old Lady's mother or father coming from Rovno Gubernya.  This was an inside joke that Bernstein revealed at the 1989 Barbican concert.  There is no mention of such a place in Voltaire.  It's the Russian town in which Bernstein's father was born. 

A short version is reprised on Prince's 74BR and 97BR.  Using the same theme, Travel (to the Stables) is an instrumental used for the scene change.  It was recorded on the 82NY, but is probably used in most productions. 

15.0 Quartet Finale
15.5 Quartet Finale

There are two distinctly different set of lyrics, both by Wilbur, and their usage depends upon whether it is Hellman's [15.0] or Wheeler's [15.5] book that is being used.  The first two verses (both sung by Candide in the 56BP, with the second sung by Cunegonde in most subsequent productions) use the Cunegonde theme [see Candide's Lament].  The next two verses are a foreshadowing (or a reprise, depending again on the production) of the music from My Love.  The four parts are usually sung by Candide, Cunegonde, the Old Lady, and the Governor.

For the 71TP, an extra part was created for Maximillian [sic] thus requiring the piece to be entitled the Quintet Finale.  I have not been able to determine which version was used (15.0 seems the likelier of the two), or whether new lyrics were added for the fifth part, though Wilbur is credited as the lyricist.  The program notes state that Wilbur was brought in to work on the "recreation of the lyrics."

In the program of the Old Vic production of the 88SO, this number is called To the New World — not to be confused with the same title used for Ballad of the New World in the program of the 82NY

16.0 My Love [The Governor's Serenade]
[Wilbur / Latouche]

16.1 My Love [Maximilian's Reprise]
[Wilbur / Latouche]

Based on the 1957 libretto and the 1958 score, you would think this was a solo for the Governor of Buenos Aires.  Neither include either the object of affection's response to the Governor's first verse, or his rebuttal verse, which were recorded for the cast album of the 56BP.  Surely these verses were performed in that production.  There's no explanation for their absense in the two subsequent publications — especially since both include material that was cut after the Boston try-out.  Both end with the following two stanzas:

For love undying, my love,
Is not worth trying, my love.
Never, my love,
Mention forever, my love.

Let it be lively,
Let it be lovely,
And light as a song,
But don't let it last too long!

To the best of my knowledge, these lyrics have never been recorded. 

Appearing in almost every production, this number was surprisingly dropped from the 59LP.  Until the 74BR, the Old Lady sang the second part of Cunegonde's verse, but in no production since.  And until the 82NY production, it was always in Act One.  Musically, it makes more sense — its main theme is reprised in the Quartet Finale of Act One. 

There is no variation in lyrics regardless of the production.  Of course, the person who is the object of the Governor's affection changes — Maximilian sings Cunegonde's verse in all of Harold Prince's productions.  In the 88SO both parties are courted.  Bernstein did not use Maximilian's Reprise in his 89BV, though it is included in the published score of 1994.

I am not sure which parts were written by the individual lyricists, but this was probably one of the instances where Wilbur "cleaned up" Latouche's lyrics after his [Latouche's] departure (the other being You Were Dead, You Know). 

17.0 We Are Women

This was first introduced in the 59LP.  Lillian Hellman suggested that Bernstein write a song [see letter] to replace Quiet, which she felt just didn't work (I agree).  Bernstein's piano-vocal score, in his papers at the Library of Congress, is dated "17 Jan 59".  It was to be the last music written for Candide until Words, Words, Words (dated "16 June 71").

After the 1959 London production, where this song was performed near the beginning of Act II in Buenos Aires, the next major production to use it (66UC) placed the song in the Venice scene later in Act II.

The lyrics might be considered either sexist or farcical.  Just what does "sexly" mean?  Whichever way one may feel about it, it can't be denied that the melody is quite lovely.  It was first recorded in 1981 for Ben Bagley's Leonard Bernstein Revisited and subsequently on the cast recordings of the 89BV, the 88SO (1997 reissue), and the 99NT

18.0 Pilgrims' Procession
[no lyrics]
18.5 Alleluia

This is actually two separate pieces.  The first part [18.0] is a short musical interlude and the second part [18.5] is sung and has entirely different music .  It appeared in Act One of the 56BP — though it wasn't recorded — as just Pilgrims' Procession.  It's been used in several later productions, but not always in the same place and not always together. 

In the program of the 71TP, Richard Wilbur is credited as lyricist which probably means that both the pieces were performed.  For the 74BR Prince used the music from the second part, but kept only the "Alleluia" chorus (no, not Handel's.)  In the 82NY, the first part appears as underscore for Voltaire's spoken introduction to Candide's verse of Life is Happiness Indeed.  The second part appears in Act Two, but includes only Wilbur's chorus and reverses the original meaning with "Come, pilgrims, to America" changed to "Come, heathen of America". 

In the 89BV, the two pieces are performed as in the 56BP, restoring Wilbur's verses with a slight variation, but keeping the lyrical reversal and placing it in Act Two.

19.0 Quiet
19.5 Quiet

Another song with two sets of lyrics, it is sung by the Old Lady and either Cunegonde or Paquette.  The Old Lady's lyrics remain the same (except for a slight change of setting, depending upon where it is sung in the show).  In the Cunegonde version [19.0], she is complaining about being bedded without being married.  Paquette bemoans the loss of her jewels following the trip to Eldorado.  This version [19.5] first appeared in the 82NY (and subsequent Harold Prince productions), so Wilbur was most likely responsible for the new lyrics as well.  In either case, I find it very difficult to enjoy this piece.  Just like the third person who is forced to listen to the two women, I also want to yell out "Quiet!"

Most productions will use either this song or We Are Women, which was written to replace it in the 59LP.  Both were used in the 68NY concert as does Bernstein in his 89BV.

There was an early version of this piece with lyrics by John Latouche entitled Complaints or A Lesson in Optimism.

20.0 Introduction to Eldorado
[no lyrics]

This is another short instrumental piece that is quite moving.  It was first recorded (titled Eldorado) on the 82NY recording, where it introduced the Sheep Song.  In the 88SO and the 89BV, it introduced the Hellman version of The Ballad of Eldorado.  It's quite possible that it was used as underscore in most of the earlier productions.  In the published score of the original Broadway production it is entitled Candide's Return from Eldorado.  An early sketch of the music was included the 1955 fair-copy score entitled Packing to Descent.

21.0 The Ballad of Eldorado [Eldorado]
21.5 The Ballad of the New World

There are two completely different sets of lyrics to Bernstein's beautiful music for this piece, one of my personal favorites of the whole show.  Musically and lyrically, it's a marvelous song.  I'm one of the few people who prefers Lillian Hellman's clever book over Hugh Wheeler's vulgar replacement.  Hellman's lyrics for this song makes you wonder why she didn't try her hand at writing more. 

In the recording of the 56BP, Rounseville sings the final line as "Just to find my love once more" even though the published libretto has it as "To be with my love once more", as it is sung in every other recording.  And to complicate things further, the original last line (in the 1955 score) is "I have come to find my love."

When approached by Harold Prince in 1973 about the possibility of a new production (the "Chelsea version"), Hellman gave her permission with the proviso that not one single word of hers could be used.  (Yes, she could be quite nasty at times, but that shouldn't matter when determining the quality of her work.  Just check out this excerpt from a letter to Bernstein concerning her feelings about Prince and Wheeler.)  Consequently (and sadly), this number could not be used.  Undaunted, John Mauceri, while preparing the music for the 82NY, had Richard Wilbur write a new set of lyrics.  This version [21.5] (it is called To the New World in the program) ain't half bad either.  As the second act opener, the lyrics reflect this change in purpose — the song no longer deals with Eldorado.  (The Eldorado sequence appears later, musically covered by Sheep Song.)  It is used in all of the Prince-directed two-act productions, and as such, I think it is a heckuva lot better opener than the 89BV's reprise of Universal Good

After Hellman's death in 1984, Bernstein probably felt it safe enough to use her lyrics in his 89BV.  John Caird, in the 99NT, also went back to the Hellman version, but takes the unusual step of having it sung by both Candide and Cacambo, a nice touch.  Candide sings the first verse alone and alternates lines with Cacambo in the second and third verses.  The quotes from the last verse are sung by Candide with the King and Queen of Eldorado.

22.0 Words, Words, Words [Martin's Laughing Song]

Evidently the last new work (at least, the last new music) that Bernstein wrote for Candide, it was first used in the 71TP.  The second half of the song uses the same music as The Best of All Possible Worlds and is basically a response to the optimism of that song.  What's puzzling is that this song was described to a T as a possible addition to the 59LP in the letter from Hellman to Bernstein.  She was planning on asking Wilbur to supply the new lyrics.  In the end, there was no such song in the 59LP.  When Bernstein was approached by Sheldon Patinkin who was revising Hellman's book for the 71TP, maybe Bernstein remembered Hellman's suggestion.  His piano-score of the song (at the Library of Congress) is dated "16 June 71". 

Now on to an even more puzzling situation.  Bernstein has always been given sole credit for the lyrics of this song, even though there is evidence to suggest that Richard Wilbur made a great contribution to the effort.  In a letter from Wilbur to Bernstein in January, 1970, he includes lyrics for the "Worst of All Possible Worlds" section, which wound up in the final version.  And in a subsequent letter (dated "25 June 1971", shortly after Bernstein had completed the music for the "Words, Words, Words" section; see above), Wilbur provides more new lyrics. 

    Wilbur's Version
    Bernstein's Version
    There is no way
    Words can convey
    The complete insanity of life,
    The defeat and vanity of life.
    What’s there to say...but ha?
    Words, words, words, words
    I have no words
    To describe the vanity of life,
    The insane inanity of life.
    I have no words, but ha!
    Wait! There has occurred to me
    A word that might conceivably
    Serve to describe us all,
    Here on this dusty ball:
    Only two syllables.
    Two lonely syllables,
    One bitter word — absurd!
    It just occurred to me,
    A word that may just possibly
    Apply to all of us
    Trapped on this ball of dust
    Two tiny syllables
    But spiny syllables,
    One single word — absurd!
    Don‘t make me laugh!
    Don‘t make me titter!
    All wheat is chaff,
    All pills are bitter.
    Don't put your trust in
    This worst of all possible worlds.
    All ends in dust in
    This worst of all possible worlds.
    Don‘t make me laugh!
    Don‘t make me titter!
    All wheat is chaff,
    All pills are bitter.
    Nothing to trust in
    This worst of all possible worlds.
    All ends in dust in
    This worst of all possible worlds.

This comparison clearly indicates that Wilbur should at least receive credit as co-lyricist.  And since we're on the subject, I think Wilbur's original lyrics were better!

Other than giving the pessimistic Martin a song of his own, I don't think this adds much to the show.  It was first recorded for the 88SO (released in 1997), but first appeared on the 89BV.  It is called simply Laughing Song in the program of the 88SO.

23.0 Bon Voyage

There is no variation in lyrics, but it is sung by either the Governor or Vanderdendur.  It's one of the handful of songs that are sung in every production in roughly the same location of the score.  Another highlight for me, I love how Wilbur's lyrics sit on Bernstein's notes.  Very operetta.  Gilbert and Sullivan would have approved. 

The published libretto omits the "dumb goat" verse and its preceding chorus, even though both are sung in the 56BP and were published in the 1958 vocal score

24.0 The Kings' Barcarolle [All at Sea]
24.5 Barcarolle: The Simple Life
24.9 Barcarolle (Upon a Ship at Sea)
[no lyrics]

Another Gilbert-and-Sullivan-like song.  That is, when the lyrics are used.  In the Bernstein collection at the Library of Congress, there is an undated sketch of the music — titled All at Sea, with alternate titles "Parliamentary Rondo" and "The Kings' Rondo" —with an accompanying lyric sheet similar to the lyrics used in the 88SO and all subsequent non-Harold Prince productions.  I believe that this was written for the original production and discarded before any actual performance.

The earliest credited performance that I was able to find was in the program of the 71TP for a selection entitled Barcarolle: The Simple Life.  Wilbur's lyrics may have been re-written for this production, because there were no kings in this version.  Except for the names of the characters singing the song, nothing in the lyrics indicate that the parts must be sung by kings. 

I have been told by someone who attended a performance of the 66UC production that the music was used as underscore during Scene VI in Act 2.  This is consistent with that production's use of music discarded for the Broadway production.

Prince uses the music [24.9] in his productions to underscore the Old Lady's story at sea.  The "kings" version [24.0] was used in the 88SO (its first recording, but released after...), the 89BV, and the 99NT

25.0 Money, Money, Money [Venice Gambling Scene]

Because of the way it's always been presented on recordings, you might have thought this piece was just a very short intro for What's the Use?.  I did.  The 1958 published score (along with the libretto) makes it clear that this was not the case.  It was both underscore and a choral piece used throughout the scene in the Venice casino (Act II, Scene 2).  It was performed in the 56BP, but not recorded.  Its first recording was for the 82NY though not given separate credit.  It is given individual credit in the 89BV as well as in the 99NT

26.0 What's the Use? [Pass It Along]
26.5 What's the Use?
[uncredited (Wilbur?)]

There are two completely different set of lyrics for this one.  Up until the 99NT, there had only been two versions with slight variations: the Harold Prince version and the version used by everyone else.  Prince shifts the verses around, and a different set of characters sing it.  Still, the structure remains the same: each character sings their verse — in which they complain about the character that follows them — and are then joined in the chorus by all of the characters that preceded them.

In the 99NT, the emphasis is taken off the gambling and cheating aspect of the original version and deals with each character's attitude about life in general.  The verses are sung in turn by each of the main characters except for Candide and Cunegonde.  The new lyrics [26.5] are uncredited but might have been written by Wilbur who had purportedly revised some of his lyrics for this production.  Sadly, if they were written by him, these lyrics are sub-par for Wilbur.

In the program of the Old Vic production of the 88SO, this number is called Pass It Along

27.0 The Venice Gavotte
[Wilbur / Parker]
27.5 I've Got Troubles

There are two parts to this song which are musically quite different.  The first part (let's call it "I've Got Troubles") is usually sung by the Old Lady in disguise and the second part (let's call it "Lady Frilly") is sung by Pangloss.  After each part is sung separately, they are sung again in counterpoint, with the Old Lady being joined by Cunegonde. 

For the 59LP, Pangloss's "Lady Frilly" part was not performed.  In fact, the song is listed in the program as I've Got Troubles [27.5], with only the Old Lady and Candide as the performers.  Hellman's letter to Bernstein states the possibility of using the music as underscore during the Venice casino scene. 

There is a discrepancy in the lyric credits.  The published libretto for the 56BP gives only Dorothy Parker credit.  In his 89BV, Bernstein gives credit to Wilbur and Parker.  According to John Baxindine, Wilbur wrote the "I've Got Troubles" section, and Parker wrote the "Lady Frilly" section.  This piece, as originally written, has never been used in any Prince-directed production. 

For the 74BR, Stephen Sondheim wrote new lyrics to the music and created the show-opening number, Life is Happiness Indeed.  It uses the same pattern as the original version, having both parts sung in counterpoint.  The Old Lady and Cunegonde's "I've got troubles" becomes Candide and Cunegonde's "Life is happiness indeed" while Pangloss's "Lady Frilly" becomes Maximilian's "Life is absolute perfection."  The only exception is that Sondheim doesn't use the music for Pangloss's "Millions of rubles and lire and francs" verse.

For information on an early version of this piece see The Marquise's Gavotte.

28.0 Nothing More Than This [No More Than This]

28.5 No More Than This

The 66UC was the first production to restore music that had been cut before the Broadway opening of the 56BP.  Along with Candide's Lament, Ringaroundarosy, and Barcarolle (as underscore), this song was included in the score for the first time.  In both the 66UC and the 71TP it is entitled No More Than This.  It was also performed in the 68NY concert. 

In a letter to Sheldon Patinkin dated "5 March 1971", Richard Wilbur provided the following new lyrics [28.5] for the 71TP:

Nothing more than what these purses hold?
This foolish gold, this foolish gold?
Take it then, this gold I shall not miss
Since it is this you wanted
No more than this.

Wilbur is not given credit in the program, so there's a possibility that these lyrics weren't used for this production.  Yet they are very similar to those lyrics credited to Bernstein in the first released recording, the 89BV

The song was first recorded for the 88SO (released in 1997) with slightly different lyrics.  It seems the Scottish were skittish about having Candide sing about "all that I killed and died for."  I consider it to be a musical companion to Candide's Lament of the first act.  It was also included in the 99NT.

Early sketches of this music can be found in Bernstein's papers at the Library of Congress under the titles of Not Even You and This I Know.

29.0 Make Our Garden Grow

This begins with the Cunegonde theme which we've heard several times throughout the show.  What then follows is an amazing finale.  Who can listen to the point when the orchestra falls out and the unaccompanied voices rise in crescendo and not get a lump in their throat?  Well, this listener can't, except . . . .

This brings me to my major concern with Bernstein's recording [89BV].  He conducts it so slow that I find I'm always mentally pushing him to speed things up.  Most recordings of this particular piece last between 4:00 and 4:30 minutes.  Bernstein's version, with no added bars of music, takes 5:40 minutes.  Now, that's slow.  Perhaps I don't understand his reason for doing so, but I surely understand how I feel about it.  'Nuff said.


The following selections did not appear in Bernstein's recording so they have not been assigned a Bernstein Number


This is a very short musical interlude used in several Harold Prince productions during the transition from the desert island to the Turkish casino.  It is included in the recordings of both the 74BR and the 82NY and is very similar to the music entitled Entrance of the Jew on the 82NY


This was first arranged by John Mauceri for Harold Prince's "opera-house" version.  It begins with the main theme from My Love (which we had just heard in the Quartet Finale of Act One), followed by music from the Voyage to Venice sequence of the 56BP (never previously recorded, also known as "the drowning music").  This leads directly into The Ballad of the New World, a good second-act opening.  Obviously, it only appears in Prince's two-act productions (the 82NY and the 97BR). 

The entr'acte used in the 88SO was different, but was also arranged by Mauceri (it wasn't recorded, but is included in the published score of 1994).  The Scottish Opera version is an instrumental reprise of I Am Easily Assimilated called simply Opening in the program.

The first production that uses an entr'acte that I've been able to verify through programs is the 58CT.  I haven't uncovered what the contents are or who may have arranged it, but it is most definitely not either of the two mentioned above.

The Inquisition

The program for the 66UC shows a musical number entitled Lisbon Fair and The Inquisition.  The "fair" part probably closely follows the Lisbon Sequence of the original 56BP with lyrics by Bernstein himself.  It is the "inquisition" scene which causes the most headaches for researchers (well, at least, this one.)  Legend has it that Gordon Davidson reinstated the cuts that Tyrone Guthrie had made in Lillian Hellman's original book with its overt references to the House Un-American Activities Committee.  This scene was purportedly never used in any other production until Davidson himself used it again in his 1995 Los Angeles production (with updated references).  Prince, Wheeler and Sondheim created a musicalized version of the Inquisition scene for the 74BR entitled Auto-da-fé [q.v.], which has formed the basis (with wide variations) for all subsequent productions. 

For the 71TP, the program lists two separate numbers: The Lisbon Sequence followed by The Inquisition with the same characters as Hellman's original book.  I haven't been able to determine to what extent they resemble either the 56BR or the 66UC versions.

The following lyrics by Richard Wilbur for the inquisition scene were never used:
Though I honor this court
And approve of its aims
I must draw the line at
The naming of names

(A judge coughs, the defendent lets the statement fall from his nerveless fingers)

But since you insist
There were Sidney and Freddie
And Horace and Morris
(Who badly misled me)
And Mother and Daddy
And Alice and Artie
And someone named Boris
I met at a party
On Tuesday or Friday
In May or November
(Boobsy was there
And she would remember)
And then there was Dolly
And Polly and Holly
And Solly and Molly

The Pickpocket Ballet

This title was first used for a piece in the 71TP.  It introduced the Venice scene of Act Two.  No lyricist is given credit for this number in the program of the production, but I still can't be sure if it was only underscore.  Only Wilbur and Latouche's songs are specifically given lyrical credit.  No lyrical contribution by Bernstein, Hellman or Parker is acknowledged in the program. 

Sheep Song [Sheep's Song]

The music for this song was originally written for Fernando's Lullaby which was cut before the Boston tryouts.  As musical director of the 74BR, John Mauceri needed music for the Eldorado sequence.  Due to a dispute with Lillian Hellman about the use of her contributions, he was unable to use her lyrics for The Ballad of Eldorado.  As a consequence of this restraint, Mauceri had Stephen Sondheim write new lyrics for this previously unheard music.  It is one of the three songs with lyrics written entirely by Sondheim (the others being Life is Happiness Indeed and This World). 

Because of it's inclusion in all of Harold Prince's productions, I can only assume that he must find something appealing about it.  Plainly put, I don't like it.  The music is OK, but those bleating sheep have to go.  It's just another song with a whining woman (see Quiet). 

Voyage to Venice

Another orchestral interlude in Act Two connecting the Buenos Aires scene to the Venice scene.  It's never been given individual credit in any production's program, so I'm not sure if it was used as underscore in any production other than the 56BP (the piece is titled Into the Raft in the 1958 published score.)  John Mauceri found a place for it in the 82NY (see the Entr'acte) and Charlie Harmon uses it in his arrangement of the Suite from Candide (he calls it the "drowning music".) 

Wedding Procession

This underscore was obviously only used, as such, in the productions of Hellman's book (though the music might have wound up in later productions as underscore in other scenes).  It was only separately credited in the program of the 71TP and in John Mauceri's Candide Suite.  I don't believe it to be the same music used as the wedding chorale (see Chorale) in the 56BP, although it did precede it in the score.

The following pieces were cut before the original Broadway production.

Candide Agonistes [The Worst of All Possible Worlds]

This was originally intended as a musical reprise of The Best of All Possible Worlds in Act I, Scene 4.  Candide is reassuring the Pilgrims in the face of their plight, while in alternate verses Martin makes his pessimistic world view even more clearer.  As far as I've been able to determine, these lyrics, written by Richard Wilbur, were never used in any production.

Pilgrims be strong!
Don't sob and scream so!
Nothing's gone wrong
Though it may seem so.
All's for the best in this best of all possible worlds.
Don't be distressed [originally "depressed"] in this best of all possible worlds.

Listen to him, it's the best of all possible worlds.
God, but it's grim in this best of all possible worlds.

Insane man! This world is hell;
Then how can all be well?
Have your misfortunes made you mad,
That you can't see the world is bad?
To one who's sane
It's all too plain
The devil's in the saddle.

His brain's begun to addle.

My master, sir
Would not concur
In such depressing twaddle.
To one who can philosophize
All ills are blessings in disguise.
I beg you, think about it.

Forgive us if we doubt it.

When you're in chains,
Starving and stinking,
Why tax your brains?
What good is thinking?
You can't make sense of this worst of all possible worlds.
Make no defense of this worst of all possilbe worlds.

Yes it appears, it's the worst of all possible worlds.
This vale of tears is the worst of all possible worlds.

O Pilgrims, please understand!
Let's take the case in hand.
We're hungry and our hands are chained;
But let's be glad to be restrained
From getting stout
From gas and gout,
And drink and dissipation.

[Lines 3-6 of the preceding verse replaced this first draft:
Although we're hungry and enchained
We should be glad to be restrained
From gas and gout
From getting stout]

That's feeble consolation [originally "a wondrous consolation"]

Why must you try
To justify
This ugly situation.
All things are either bad or worse.
To call them blessings is perverse,
And make the case no better.

Our feelings to the letter.

My master said —

Man's lot is dismal.

Don't be misled —

Life is abysmal.

Try not to grieve in —

This worst of all possible worlds.

Try to believe in —

This worst of all possible worlds.

Yes, yes, we're cursed in this worst of all possible worlds.
All's for the worst in this worst of all possible worlds.

Quod erat demonstradum
Q. E. D.
We must agree.

ALL (except Candide who has covered his face in defeat)
Quod erat demonstradum
In this worst of all possible, possible, possible worlds!
Quod erat demonstradum
Q. E. D.

Complaints [Complaint Song]

An early version of Quiet (it also included themes from The Best of All Possible Worlds), this song had lyrics by John Latouche. The sketch at the Library of Congress has the title "A Lesson in Optimism" crossed out.

Fernando's Lullaby [Pure Child]

In an early draft of Hellman's book, there was an extended subplot during the Buenos Aires sequence concerning Iago, the Governor's servant, and his son, Fernando.  This lullaby was sung to Fernando (who was anything but pure) in the first scene of Act II.  The lyrics were written by John Latouche with a few lines by Bernstein. 

Purest child, of purest beauty
These our babes we give to thee.

Humbly I accept my duty
I shall make your children free.

Thee we charge with their tomorrow
Bring them safely to the light.

They shall never suffer sorrow
This I promise, Honor Bright.

May thy magical charms defend thee
Mandrake root and bulrush wild
Go in peace where peace doth send thee
Child, good-night, good-night, good child

When the subplot was dropped, the song was cut as well.  It was included in the score that was sent to the Library of Congress in February, 1955.  This information was provided by John Baxindine.

The music was later used as the basis for Sheep Song, first performed in the 74BR.  Some sources believe this is the same music used for the song "The Lonely Men of Harvard", for which Alan Jay Lerner wrote lyrics, first performed at Harvard Night at Carnegie Hall circa 1957-1958.

Gambling Scene (Paris) and Paris II

These were two early musical sketches for a cut scene.  The music for the first sketch (14 pages) became the source for Money, Money, Money.  The second sketch (9 pages) included the minuet from Mozart's Don Giovanni.

Get You Up! [Get Ye Gone]

According to Andrew Porter's notes in the recording of the 89BV, this was an aria sung by Candide in the final scene of the score as copyrighted in 1955 (where it is appropriately titled the Big Aria.)  It was followed by Life is Neither and a Love Duet

John Baxindine writes: The song we now call Universal Good was originally part of this aria.  The chorale was repeated three times, near the close of the aria, starting with the lyric "Life is neither good nor bad" (as in 89BV).  The aria itself was interminably long, and covered roughly the same territory as the first chunk of Hellman's eventual final scene.  Everyone started off the scene by nattering endlessly while Candide remained catatonically silent; suddenly, after a series of particularly idiotic comments, Candide sang the word "Stop!" and held it while the orchestra came in underneath him.  In song, he singled out each person in turn, deriding him (or her) for indolence, idiocy, etc.; each time, his tirade ended with the phrase "Get you up, or get you gone!"  The lyric is surely by Bernstein.  Like several other songs in the 1955 draft, it is full of self-consciously archaic grammar.  I can't say I like it very much, though some of the music is interesting.  Of the themes in the aria, only the Universal Good music has seen the light of day as far as I know.

Gloria [Antiphon]

Another short piece that was dropped when the Iago subplot was jettisoned.  It is a vocal fanfare sung acapella by Iago and a chorus.  I don't believe the music was used in any other songs.  In an early draft of the libretto for the 74BR, Hugh Wheeler included this piece as a victory celebration for both the Westphalian and the Bulgarian armies.

The Governor's Bolero [The Culture Song]

This was originally intended for the Buenos Aires section (Act II, Scene 1) and sung after an aria by Candide and before Pure Child.  It may have included lyrics by Latouche, which could have evolved into My Love.  According to most sources, Latouche was dismissed from the project before work on Act II had begun.

Love Duet [One Hand, One Heart]

In the 1955 fair-copy score, the finale included a love duet of 63 bars (no lyrics had been written).  It was dropped and the music was eventually used for "One Hand, One Heart" in West Side Story

The Marquise's Gavotte

An early draft of Act II, Scene 2 included a duet in which Candide is propositioned by a Venetian marquise.  The lyrics of the first section are probably by Bernstein, since Latouche left the show before work on Act II had begun. 

This song also included the familiar "Lady Frilly" verses sung by Pangloss (lyrics by Dorothy Parker, although the intro lyrics are slightly different), and concluded with both parts sung in counterpoint.  This first part of the song was dropped, replaced by the "I've Got Troubles" section (lyrics by Richard Wilbur), and retitled The Venice Gavotte

Proposal Duet

This was an early draft of Oh, Happy We with lyrics by John Latouche.  Although the original lyrics were rather witty (they involved Cunegonde's coaxing Candide into proposing marriage), Richard Wilbur's new lyrics were far superior.

Reunion Waltz

Another early draft of a song with lyrics by John Latouche.  Most of the lyrics survived, with Wilbur revising a few lines which gave the song a new title: You Were Dead, You Know

    Latouche's Original
    Wilbur's Revisions

    Dearest lady, pray explain
    I had thought you slain.
    Thought you rudely violated, too.

    That is very true.
    Ah, but love will find a way.

    Then, what did you do?

    We’ll go into that another day
    But now what of you?
    You are looking very well
    How did you contrive to survive?

    It’s a sorry tale to tell
    I escaped half-dead, half-alive.

    Dearest, how can this be so
    You were dead, you know.
    You were shot and bayoneted, too.

    That is very true.
    Ah, but love will find a way.

    Then, what did you do?

    We’ll go into that another day
    Now let's talk of you.
    You are looking very well
    Weren't you clever, dear, to survive?

    I've a sorry tale to tell
    I escaped more dead than alive.

The song continues as Latouche originally wrote it.  Still, one can see how Wilbur took a set of great lyrics and made them even better.

"Where does it get you in the end?" [Gee, Officer Krupke]

In Humphrey Burton's biography of Bernstein, he states that the music from West Side Story's "Gee, Officer Krupke" was originally written for the Venice scene in Candide with lyrics supplied by John Latouche, the final line being "Where does it get you in the end?". 

For the first few productions of Candide (at least up through the 59LP), each of the musical selections was identified in the programs by either its style of music (tango, waltz, polka) or the configuration of voices (duet, trio, quartet, ensemble).  The following glossary will help with the more obscure terms as well as show the wide range of styles used by Bernstein. 

  • Aria: an accompanied elaborate melody sung (as in an opera) by a single voice (e.g. Glitter and Be Gay)
  • Barcarolle: a Venetian boat song characterized by the alternation of a strong and a weak beat suggesting a rowing rhythm (or any piece of music imitating such a song) (e.g. The Kings' Barcarolle)
  • Gavotte: a dance of French peasant origin marked by the raising rather than the sliding of the feet (or a tune for such a dance in moderately quick 4/4 time) (e.g. The Venice Gavotte
  • Mazurka: a dance of Polish origin, the music for which is usually in moderate 3/4 or 3/8 time (e.g. The Paris Waltz)
  • Polka: a vivacious couple dance of Bohemian origin with three steps and a hop in duple time (two beats per measure) (e.g. We Are Women)
  • Schottische: a round dance in duple measure similar to a polka but slower (e.g. Bon Voyage)
  • Tango: a ballroom dance of South American origin in 4/4 time and marked by posturing, frequent pointing positions (e.g. I Am Easily Assimilated)
  • Waltz: a round dance in 3/4 time with strong accent on the first beat (e.g. What's the Use?)


Compiled by Michael H. Hutchins