1956 Broadway Production

Tryouts began on October 29, 1956 at the Colonial Theatre, Boston MA
Played for three weeks before moving to New Haven CT for a week
Opened December 1, 1956 at the Martin Beck Theatre, NYC
Closed February 2, 1957; Ran for 73 performances

Production Credits | Cast | Musical Numbers | Recording | Synopsis


A Comic Operetta based on Voltaire's Satire
Book by Lillian Hellman
Music by Leonard Bernstein
Lyrics by Richard Wilbur
Additional Lyrics by John Latouche and Dorothy Parker

See the lyrics note below

Production Credits

Produced by Ethel Linder Reiner in association with Lester Osterman, Jr.
Staged by Tyrone Guthrie
Production designed by Oliver Smith
Costumes designed by Irene Sharaff
Lighting by Paul Morrison
Dance Supervisors: Wallace Seibert, Anna Sokolow
Musical Director: Samuel Krachmalnick
Orchestrations by Leonard Bernstein and Hershy Kay
Production Associate: Thomas Hammond
Assistant to Mr. Guthrie: Tom Brown


Max Adrian - Dr. Pangloss / Martin
Robert Rounseville - Candide
Barbara Cook - Cunegonde / Scrub Lady
Irra Petina - Old Lady / Madame Sofronia
William Olvis - Governor of Buenos Aires
Robert Mesrobian - Baron / Prince Ivan
Louis Edmonds - Maximillian
Conrad Bain - King of Hesse / Inquisitor / Captain
Norman Roland - Hesse's General / Prefect of Police
Boris Aplon - Man / Marquis Milton
Doris Okerson - Woman
Margaret Roy - Dutch Lady / Grocery Lady / Beggar
Tony Drake - Dutch Man / Officer
Robert Rue - Atheist / Bear Man / Pilgrim Father
Robert Barry - Arab Conjuror / Croupier
Maria Novotna - Infant Casmira
William Chapman - Lawyer / Ferone
Charles Aschmann - Inquisitor / Alchemist / Duke of Naples
Robert Cosden - Junkman / Beggar
Stanley Grover - Wine Seller
Charles Morrell - Bear
Thomas Pyle - Beggar / Officer / Lady Richmond
Maud Scheerer - French Lady / Duchess
Joseph Bernard - Sultan Milton
Dorothy Krebill - Pilgrim Mother
George Blackwell - Officer / Lady Toothly
Dori Davis - Lady Cutely
Fred Jones - Lady Soothly

Singers: Peggyann Alderman, Charles Aschmann, Robert Barry, George Blackwell, Dori Davis, Jack DeLon, Tony Drake, Naomi Farr, Stanley Grover, Fred Jones, Mollie Knight, Dorothy Krebill, Vivian Laurence, Henry Lawrence, Robert Mesrobian, Lois Monroe, Doris Okerson, Thomas Pyle, Margaret Roy, Robert Rue, Mara Shorr, and Dorothy White

Dancers: Alvin Beam, Charles Czarny, Marvin Gordon, Carmen Gutierrez, Charles Morrell, Frances Noble, Liane Plane, and Gloria Stevens

Musical Numbers

Act One

Act Two

    Scene 1: Buenos Aires
  • 19.0 Trio: Quiet - Old Lady, Governor of Buenos Aires, Cunegonde
  • 20.0 Instrumental: Candide's Return from Eldorado - Orchestra * +
  • 21.0 Ballad: Eldorado - Candide, Chorus
  • 23.0 Schottische: Bon Voyage - Chorus, Governor of Buenos Aires

    Scene 1A: Candide Travels to Venice
  • ---- Instrumental: Voyage to Venice [Into the Raft / Raft to Venice] - Orchestra * +

    Scene 2: Venice
  • 25.0 Ensemble: Money, Money, Money [Venice Gambling Scene] - Croupier and Gamblers * +
  • 26.0 Waltz: What's the Use? - Madame Sofronia, Ferone, Prefect of Police, Prince Ivan, Chorus
  • 27.0 Gavotte: [The Venice Gavotte] - Madame Sofronia, Candide, Dr. Pangloss, Cunegonde

    Scene 3: Westphalia
  • 8.9 Instrumental: Return to Westphalia
  • 29.0 Finale: Make Our Garden Grow - Candide, Cunegonde, Company
  • * These numbers are not on the cast recording
    + These numbers are not listed in the program

    Note: Neither the Paris Waltz nor the Venice Gavotte are titled as such in this production

Lyric Credits (taken from the published libretto)

Richard Wilbur: "The Best of All Possible Worlds", "Oh, Happy We", "It Must Be So", "It Must Be Me", "Glitter And Be Gay", Pilgrims' Procession, Quartet Finale, "Quiet", "Bon Voyage", "What's The Use?", "Make Our Garden Grow"

John Latouche and Richard Wilbur: "You Were Dead, You Know", "My Love"

Leonard Bernstein: Lisbon Sequence, "I Am Easily Assimilated"

Lillian Hellman: "Eldorado"

Dorothy Parker: Gavotte


Candide - Original Broadway Cast

Recording produced by Goddard Lieberson
Orchestra conducted by Samuel Krachmalnick
Recorded on December 9, 1956

  • LP [mono], 1957 [Columbia OL 5180]
  • LP [stereo (fake?)], 1963 [Columbia OS 2350]
  • Triple LP, 1983 [Time-Life Records STL-AM15, includes the mono version of Candide, with the original cast recordings of Wonderful Town and West Side Story]
  • Triple Cassette, 1983 [Time-Life Records STL-AM15, same as the above LP boxset]
  • LP reissue [stereo (fake?)], 19?? [Columbia PST 2350]
  • Cassette, 19?? [Columbia PST 2350]
  • Compact Disc, 1987 [Columbia MK 38732]
  • Cassette, 1987 [Columbia MT 38732]

Digitally Remixed and Remastered Version
Produced by Thomas Z. Shepard
Remiz engineer: Kevin Boutote
Liner notes by Didier C. Deutsch

  • Compact Disc, 1991 [Sony Broadway SK 48017] (51:05 mins.)
  • Cassette, 1991 [Sony Broadway ST 48017]

Further recording information

by George Dale

In the country of Westphalia, Candide is about to be married to the lovely Cunegonde.  Dr. Pangloss, Candide's teacher expounds his famous philosophy, to the effeect that all is for the best in The Best of All Possible Worlds.  The happy couple sing their marriage duet [Oh, Happy We], and the ceremony is about to take place when war breaks out between Westphalia and Hesse.  Westphalia is destroyed, and Cunegonde is seemingly killed.  Candide takes comfort in Panglossian doctrine  [It Must Be So]  and sets out on his journeys.

In the public square of Lisbon, the Infant Casmira, a deranged mystic in the caravan of an Arab conjuror, predicts dire happenings.  [Lisbon Sequence]  The Inquisition appears, in the persons of two ancient Inquisitors and their lawyer, and many citizens are tried and sentenced to hang, including Candide and Dr. Pangloss.  Suddenly an earthquake occurs, killing Dr. Pangloss, and Candide barely escapes.

Candide, faced with the loss of both Cunegonde and Dr. Pangloss, starts out for Paris.  He is unable to reconcile Dr. Pangloss's ideas with the bitter events that have occurred, but concludes that the fault must lie within himself, rather than in the philosophy of optimism.  [It Must Be Me]

Cunegonde turns up alive in Paris, a demi-mondaine in a house shared by a Marquis and a Sultan.  A party is in progress.  Urged by the Old Lady, who serves as her duenna, Cunegonde arrays herself in her jewels.  [Glitter and Be Gay]  Candide stumbles into the scene and is amazed to find Cunegonde still alive.  [You Were Dead, You Know]  In a duel, he kills both the Marquis and the Sultan, and flees with Cunegonde, accompanied by the Old Lady.

They fall in with a band of devout Pilgrims on their way to the New World and sail with them.  [Pilgrims' Procession]  Arriving in Buenos Aires, the group is brought to the Governor's Palace, where all except Cunegonde and the Old Lady are immediately enslaved.  A street cleaner appears in the person of the pessimistic Martin, warning Candide of the future.  The Governor serenades Cunegonde  [My Love]  and she, abetted by the Old Lady, agrees to live in the palace  [I Am Easily Assimilated], but Candide, fired by reports of Eldorado, escapes once more and sets off to seek his fortune, planning to return for Cunegonde later.  [Quartet Finale]

In the heat of Buenos Aires, Cunegonde, the Old Lady and the Governor display their fraying nerves  [Quiet], and the Governor resolves to get rid of the tiresome ladies.  Candide returns from  Eldorado, his pockets full of gold and searches for Cunegonde.  The Governor, however, has had both Cunegonde and the Old Lady tied up in sacks and carried to a boat in the harbor.  He tells Candide that the women have sailed for Europe, and Candide eagerly purchases a leaky ship from the Governor and dashes off.  As the Governor and his suite watch from his terrace, the ship with Candide and Martin casts off and almost immediately sinks.  [Bon Voyage]

Candide and Martin have been rescued from the ship, and are floating about the ocean on a raft.  Martin is devoured by a shark, but Dr. Pangloss miraculously reappears.  Candide is overjoyed to find his old teacher, and Pangloss sets about repairing the damage done his philosophy by Candide's experiences.

In a luxurious palazzo of Venice, Cunegonde turns up as a scrubwoman, the Old Lady as a woman of fashion [Madame Sofronia].  [What's the Use?]  Candide and Dr. Pangloss appear and are caught up by the merriment, the wine and the gambling, and Candide is swindled out of his remaining gold by the avaricious crowd.  [Gavotte]  He is penniless, without friends and without hope.

Utterly disillusioned, he returns to the ruined Westphalia.  Cunegonde, Pangloss, and the Old Lady appear and within them a spark of optimism still flickers.  Candide, however, has had enough of the foolish Panglossian ideal and tells them all that the only way to live is to try and make some sense of life and to Make Our Garden Grow.

[from the liner notes of the original cast recording]

Compiled by Michael H. Hutchins